The first thing you should do when you find your water softener leaking is to turn off the power supply. You will be vulnerable to electric shocks and the appliance may get damaged, there is a possibility of partial short circuits as well. Complete or total circuit failures are rare these days since most homes or properties have more than one circuit breakers and the electrical wiring is phased.
1. Turn Water Off
To diagnose and to fix water softener leaking, you must turn the water supply off. You can easily access the shutoff valve which is usually at the rear side of the unit. It should be visible. Some inlet valves allow for complete shut off while some systems allow you to get water in the tap but it would not go through the softener. There are bypass options in such softener models. Now, before you take any further steps there is one caveat you should be aware of. Not all water softener leaks are easy to diagnose and chances are high they would be beyond your technical expertise. Not everyone is an expert in water softeners anyway. In such cases, you would need to contact your provider. Call up the manufacturer or installer and get them to check the leak.
2. Check Pipes
It is possible that water softener leaking is due to a poorly connected pipe or faulty pipe. You need to check the installer after taking the aforementioned steps. Look at the inlet valve, the outlet valve, the condition of the pipe and look for signs of damage or wearing out. Wear and tear is common with old systems, not so with new ones. Damages pipes should be replaced. You cannot really repair them. If you still have the warranty, then you can get the pipe replaced without any charges. Beyond the warranty period, you will have to pay for it unless you have an annual maintenance contract.
Water softener leaking can be due to the failure of one of the several components inside. The tank inside may overflow. There may be physical damages somewhere. The tank inside can get clogged. There can be more pressure than usual or what the unit is supposed to withstand and hence the relief valve may let the excess water flow down. This dripping will appear to leak and it can be concerning. Do not try to open the water softener unless you are aware of the potential problems. You may not understand much of the internal parts. Call your manufacturer or installer.